SCORS-G Publications

For a comprehensive review of the SCORS-G literature see Stein and Slavin-Mulford (2018)

Ablon, J.S., Levy, R.A., & Katzenstein, T. (2006).  Beyond Brand Names of Psychotherapy:  Identifying Empirically Supported Change Processes.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(2), 216-231.

Auletta, A., Cupellaro, S., Abbate, L., Aiello, E., Cornacchia, P., Norcia, C. & Sogos, C. (2018). SCORS-G and Card Pull Effect of TAT Stories: A Study with a Non-clinical Sample of Children. Assessment, DOI: 10.1177/1073191118781014.

Ackerman, S., Clemence, A., Weatherill, R., & Hilsenroth, M. (1999). Use of the TAT in the Assessment of DSM-IV Cluster B Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73, 422-448.

Ackerman, S., Hilsenroth, M., Clemence, A., Weatherill, R., & Fowler, C. (2000). The Effects of Social Cognition and Object Representation on Psychotherapy Continuation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 64, 386-408.

Ackerman, S., Hilsenroth, M., Clemence, A., Weatherill, R., & Fowler, C. (2001). Convergent Validity of Rorschach and TAT Scales of Object Relations.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 77(2), 295-306.

Bambery, M. & Porcerelli, J. (2006).  Psychodynamic therapy for Oppositional Defiant Disorder:  Changes in personality, object relations, and adaptive function after six months of treatment.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 54(4), 1334-1339.

Bombel, G., Mihura, J., & Meyer, G. (2009).  An Examination of the Construct Validity of the Rorschach Mutuality of Autonomy (MOA) Scale.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 91 (3) 227-237. 

Bram, A.D. (2014).  Object Relations, Interpersonal Functioning, and Health in a nonclinical sample:  Construct Validation and Norms for the TAT SCORS-G.  Psychoanalytic Psychology DOI: 10.1037/a0036286.

Calabrese, M., Farber, B., & Westen, D. (2005).  The Relationship of Adult Attachment Constructs to Object Relational Patterns of Representing Self and Others.  Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 33(3), 513-530.

Callahan, K., Price, J., & Hilsenroth, M. (2003). Psychological Assessment of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse within a Naturalistic Clinical Sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80, 174-185.

Clemence, J.A.  & Lewis, K. (2018).  Flexibility and rigidity in object relational functioning: Assessing change in suicidal ideation and global psychiatric functioning using the SCORS–G, Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(2), 135-144. 

Conway, F., Oster, M., & McCarthy, J. (2010).  Exploring Object Relations in hospitalized children with caregiver loss.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy,  9 (2-3), 108-117. 

Conway, F., Lyon, S., & McCarthy, J. (2014).  Object Relations of Hospitalized Adolescents Engaged in Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors.  Adolescent Psychotherapy 13(2), 110-121.

DeFife, J.A., Goldberg, M., &Westen, D. (2013).  Dimensional Assessment of Self and Interpersonal Functioning in Adolescents:  Implications for DSM-5’s General Definition of Personality Disorder.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 27, 1-13.

Diener, M. J., &Hilsenroth, M.J. (2004). Multimethod Validity of the SWAP-200 Dysphoric Q-factor.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(7), 479-486.

Eudell-Simmons, E., Stein, M., DeFife, J. & Hilsenroth, M. (2005).  Reliability and Validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) in the Assessment of Dream Narratives.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 325-333.

Fowler, J.C., Ackerman, S.J., Speanburg, S., Bailey, A., Blagys, M., & Conklin, A.C. (2004).  Personality and Symptom Change in Treatment-Refractory Inpatients:  Evaluation of the Phase Model of Change Using Rorschach, TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 83(3), 306-322.

Fowler, J.C., & DeFife, J.A. (2012).  Quality of Object Representations Related to Service Utilization in a Long-Term Residential Treatment Center.  Psychotherapy, 49(3), 418-422.

Gamache, D., Diguer, L., Laverdiere, O., & Rousseau, J.-P. (2012).  Development of an object relation-based typology of adolescent sex offenders.  Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 76(4), 329-364.

Gregory, R.J. & Mustata, G.T. (2012).  Magical thinking in narratives of adolescent cutters.  Journal of Adolescence, 25, 1045-1051.

Haggerty, G., Forlenza, N., Poland, C., Ray, S., Zodan, J., Mehra, A., Goyal, A., Baity, M.R., Siefert, C.J. Sobin, S., Leite, D., & Sinclair, S.J. (2014).  Assessing Overall Functioning with Adolescent Inpatients.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202 (11), 822-828.

Haggerty, G., Blanchard, M., Baity, M.R., DeFife, J.A., Stein, M.B., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., & Zodan, J. (2015).  Clinical Validity of a Dimensional Assessment of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(1), 3-12.

Haggerty, G.,  Stein, M.B, Siefert, C., Zodan, J, Mehra, A., Ogbuli, K., Sangha, J., Habib, M.,  Sinclair, S.J., & Blais, M.A. (2018). Dimensional measure of self and interpersonal functioning: Comparisons with treatment alliance and readiness for inpatient psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2193

Handelzalts, J.E., Fisher, S., & Naot, R. (2014).  Object relations and real life relationships:  A cross method assessment, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 160-167.

Handelzalts, J.E., Fisher, S., Sadan, O., & Goldzweig, G. (2016).  Object relations, unconscious defences and fear of childbirth, as reflected in maternal-request caesarean section.  Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology.  DOI:  10.1080/02646838.2016.1253832

Huprich, S., Porcerelli, J., Binienda, J., Karana, D. & Kamoo, R (2007).  Parental Representations, object relations and their relationship to Depressive Personality Disorder and Dysthymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 2171-2181.

Josephs, L., Anderson, E., Bernard, A., Fatzer, K., & Streich, J. (2004).  Assessing Progress in Analysis Interminable.  Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 52(4), 1185-1214.

Jowers, C. E., Cain, L. A., Hoffman, Z. T., Perkey, H., Stein, M. B., Widner, S. C., & Slavin-Mulford, J. (2019). The relationship between trainee therapist traits with the use of self-disclosure and immediacy in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 56(2), 157-169. DOI: 10.1037/pst0000225.

Kuutmann, K. & Hilsenroth, M.J. (2012).  Exploring In-Session Focus on the Patient-Therapist Relationship:  Patient Characteristics, Process and Outcome.  Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 187-202.

Lehmann, M.E. & Hilsenroth, M.J. (2011).  Evaluating Psychological Insight in a Clinical Sample Using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199 (5), 354-359.

Levy, S.R., Hilsenroth, M.J., & Owen, J.J. (2015).  Relationship between Interpretation, Alliance, and Outcome in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203(6), 418-424.

Lewis, K.C. & Ridenour, J. (2019).  The Integration of EMA and Single-Occasion Multimethod Assessment Data for a Complex Psychiatric Patient.  Assessment. DOI:  10.1177/1073191118825313

Lewis, K.C., Meehan, K.B., Cain, N.M., Wong, P.S., Clemence, A.J., Stevens, J., & Tillman, J.G. (2019).  Quality of Internalized Object Representations and Suicidality in Individuals With Anaclitic and Introjective Personality Styles. Journal of Personality Disorders. DOI: 10.1521/pedi_2019_33_435

Lewis, K.C., Meehan, K.B., Cain, N.M., Wong, P.S., Clemence, A.J., Stevens, J., & Tillman, J.G. (2016).  Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(1), 19-34.

Maher, H., Sumathi, D., & Winston, C.N. (2014).  Object of desire or object of distress?  Psychosocial functioning among securely and insecurely attached Indian young adults.  Psychoanalytic Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0038169.

Mullin, A.S.J. & Hilsenroth, M.J. (2012).  Relationship Between Patient Pre-Treatment Object Relations Functioning and Psychodynamic Techniques Early in Treatment.  Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, DOI:  10.1002/cpp.1826

Mullin, A.S. J., Hilsenroth, M.J., Gold, J., & Farber, B.A. (2016a).  Changes in object relations over the course of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 1-11. DOI:  10.1002/cpp.2021.

Mullin, A.S. J., Hilsenroth, M.J., Gold, J., & Farber, B.A. (2016b).  Facets of Object Representation:  Process and Outcome over the course of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2016.1215320.

O’Gorman, E.T., Cobb, H.R., Galtieri, L.R., & Kurtz, J.E. (2018).  Stimulus Characteristics in Picture Story Exercise Cards and Their Effects on The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method.  Journal of Personality Assessment.  DOI:  10.1080/00223891.2018.1519829

Ortigo, K.M., Westen, D., DeFife, J.A., & Bradley, B. (2013).  Attachment, Social Cognition, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in a Traumatized, Urban Population:  Evidence for the Mediating Role of Object Relations.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 361-368.

Pad, R., Huprich, S.K., & Porcerelli, J. (2019).  Convergent and discriminant validity of self-report and performance-based assessment of object relations.  Journal of Personality Assessment, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2019.1625909.

Peters, E., Hilsenroth, M., Eudell-Simmons, E., Blagys, M., & Handler, L. (2006).  Reliability and Validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale in Clinical Use.  Psychotherapy Research,16(5), 617-626.

Pinsker, J., Stein, M., & Hilsenroth, M. (2007). The Clinical Utility of Early Memories as Predictors of Therapeutic Alliance. Psychotherapy, 44(1), 96-109.

Porcerelli, J.H., Dauphin, V.B., Ablon, J.S., & Leitman, S. (2007).  Psychoanalysis with Avoidant Personality Disorder:  A Systematic Case Study.  Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(1), 1-13.

Porcerelli, J.H., Cogan, R., Markova, T., Miller, K., & Mickens, L. (2011).  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Defensive Functioning Scale:  a validity study.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 225-230.

Porcerelli, J.H., Cogan, R., & Bambery, M. (2011).  The Mental Functioning Axis of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual:  An Adolescent Case Study.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(2), 177-184.

Price, J., Hilsenroth, M., Callahan, K., Petretic-Jackson, P., & Bonge, D. (2004). A Pilot Study of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11, 379-391.

Richardson, L., Porcerelli, J.H., Dauphin, V.B., Morris, P., & Murdoch, W. (2018).  Use of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method in a Primary Care Setting.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(2), 156-165, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2017.1369984

Ridenour, J.M., Lewis, K.C., Poston, J.M., & Ciecalone, D.N. (2019).  Performance-Based Assessment of Social Cognition in Borderline Versus Psychotic Psychopathology.  Psychoanalytic Psychology, DOI: 10.1027/1192-5604/a000114.

Siefert, C.J., Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Haggerty, G., & Blais, M.A.   (2016).  Estimating the Effects of Thematic Apperception Test Card Content on SCORS-G Ratings:  Replication with a nonclinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.

Siefert, C.J., Stein, M., Slavin-Mulford, J., Haggerty, G., Sinclair, S.J., Funke, D. & Blais, M.A. (2018).  Exploring the Factor Structure of the Social Cognition and Object Relations-Global Rating Method:  Findings from a Large Heterogeneous Sample.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(2), 122-134, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2017.1336716. 

Sinclair, S.J., Slavin-Mulford, J., Antonius, D., Stein, M.B., Siefert, C.J., Haggerty, G., Malone, J.C., O’Keefe, S., & Blais, M.A. (2013).  Development and Preliminary Validation of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a psychiatric sample, Psychological Assessment, 25(2), 606-617.

Slavin, J., Stein, M., Pinsker-Aspen, J. & Hilsenroth, M. (2007).  Early Memories from Outpatients with and without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  Journal of Loss and Trauma, 12(5), 435-451.

Stein, M., Pinsker, J. & Hilsenroth, M. (2007). Borderline Pathology and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI):  An Evaluation of Criterion and Concurrent Validity.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 88(1), 82-90.

Stein, M.B., Hilsenroth, M.J., Pinsker-Aspen, J.H. & Primavera, L. (2009). Validity of DSM-IV Axis V Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF):  A Multi-Method Assessment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197(1), 50-55.

Stein, M.B., Siefert, C.J., Stewart, R.V.S. & Hilsenroth, M.J.(2011).  Relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and Attachment Style in a clinical sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 18, 512-523.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Siefert, C.J., & Blais, M.A. (2012).  Exploring the Construct Validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale in a Clinical Sample.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(5), 533-540.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., Renna, M., Malone, J., Bello, I., & Blais, M.A. (2013).  SCORS-G Stimulus Characteristics of Select Thematic Apperception Test Cards.  Journal of Personality Assessment, DOI:  10.1080/00223891.2013.823440

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Smith, M., Chung, W.J., Liebman, R., & Blais, M. (2015). External Validity of SCORS-G ratings of Thematic Apperception Test narratives in a sample of outpatients and inpatients. Rorschachiana, 36(1), 58-81.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair S. J., Chung W.J., Roche, M., Denckla, C., & Blais, M.A. (2018).  Extending the use of the SCORS-G Composite rating in assessing level of personality organization.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(2), DOI:  10.1080/00223891.2016.1195394

Stein, M. and Slavin-Mulford, J. (2018).  Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians and Researchers. New York, NY:  Routledge

Stein, M. and Siefert, CJ (2018).  Special Section to the Special Section on the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G):  From Research to Practice.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(2), 117-121, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2017.1418749

Thompson-Brenner, H., Boisseau, C.L., & Satir, D.A. (2010).  Adolescent Eating Disorders: Treatment and Response in a Naturalistic Study.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 277-301.

Weise, K.L. & Tuber, S. (2004).  The self and object representations of narcissistically disturbed children:  An empirical investigation.  Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(2), 244-258.

Westen, D. (1995); “Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: Q-sort for Projective Stories (SCORS-Q)”; Unpublished manuscript; Department of Psychiatry, The Cambridge Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA.

Whipple, R. & Fowler, J.C. (2011).  Affect, Relationship Schemas, and Social Cognition:  Self-Injuring Borderline Personality Disorder Inpatients.  Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(2), 183-185.

Please email us if you recently published an article using the SCORS-G and/or if your research using the SCORS-G is not listed here